THE LEVEL of Basketball Skills among Pupils in Banská Bystrica Primary Schools

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1 Mgr. Andrea Izáková, PhD. Department of Physical Education and Sports Faculty of Arts, Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica, Slovakia Andrea Izáková Gustáv Argaj Robert Rozim PaedDr. Gustáv Argaj, PhD. Department of Sports Games Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Comenius University in Bratislava PaedDr. Robert Rozim, PhD. Department of Physical Education and Sports Faculty of Arts, Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica, Slovakia THE LEVEL of Basketball Skills among Pupils in Banská Bystrica Primary Schools ISBN A. Izáková G. Argaj R. Rozim 2019 GAUDEAMUS

2 University of Hradec Králové The Level of Basketball Skills among Pupils in Banská Bystrica Primary Schools Andrea Izáková Gustáv Argaj Robert Rozim GAUDEAMUS 2019

3 Authors: Mgr. Andrea Izáková, PhD. PaedDr. Gustáv Argaj, PhD. doc. PaedDr. Robert Rozim, PhD. Reviewers: doc. PaedDr. Miroslav Nemec, PhD. PaedDr. Pavol Hori ka, PhD Publisher: GAUDEAMUS University of Hradec Králové ISBN

4 ABSTRACT Izáková Andrea, Argaj Gustáv, Rozim Robert: The Level of Basketball Skills among Pupils in Banská Bystrica Primary Schools [monograph]. Mgr. Andrea Izáková, PhD., doc. PaedDr. Robert Rozim, PhD., Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica. Faculty of Arts, Department of Physical Education and Sport, PaedDr. Gustáv Argaj, PhD., Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Department of Sports Games, 2019, 118 p. The monograph presents the results of a research project with the goal to diagnose basketball skills among 5th and 6th graders at selected primary schools in Banská Bystrica in the 2018/2019 school year and design assessment scales (performance indicators) for selected basketball skills. 370 pupils were studied in the research (153 boys and 217 girls); 210 went to the 5th grade (n = 90 boys, decimal age = years, body height = ± 6.76 cm, body weight = ±10.31 kg, BMI = ± 3.93 / n = 120 girls, decimal age = years, body height = and ± 6.76 cm respectively, body weight = ±10.31 respectively, BMI = ± 4.24) and 160 went to the 6th grade (n = 63 boys, decimal age = years, body height = ± 6.76 cm, body weight = ±10.31 kg, BMI = ± 4.51 / n = 97 girls, decimal age = years, body height = ± 6.76 cm, body weight = ±10.31 kg, BMI = ± 6.37). The level of basketball skills in selected individual game-related activities dribbling, passing, shooting was studied using four tests: 6 x 5m run with a ball, dribbling with changes of direction, passing accuracy, and set shots. In terms of diagnosing basketball skills, one more 3

5 specific movement ability player s speed was tested (6 x 5m run) to verify the influence of the ball handling skill on it. This test provided objective indicators regarding the selected basketball skill ball handling (dribbling). The results of diagnostics were evaluated using descriptive statistics and basic logical methods. Subsequently, a 5- point assessment scale with assigned scores was designed, providing a simple way to assess the level of selected basketball skills using points this was a secondary goal and one of the tasks in our research. The results can be summarised as follows: the respondents in this research achieved the average level of basketball skills in all tests according to the 5-point assessment scale, which applies to boys, girls, and both studied grades. Although the research file was limited in terms of size and the results cannot be safely generalised, the research team believes that this monograph will help improve teaching basketball as a sports game and provide useful tools for basketball coaches and the sport in practice. Key words: basketball, basketball skills, diagnostics, middle school age, physical education and sports 4

6 ABSTRAKT Izáková Andrea, Argaj Gustáv, Rozim Robert: Úrove basketbalových zru ností žiakov základných škôl v Banskej Bystrici. [Vedecká monografia]. Mgr. Andrea Izáková, PhD., doc. PaedDr. Robert Rozim, PhD., Univerzita Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici, Filozofická fakulta, Katedra telesnej výchovy a športu, PaedDr. Gustáv Argaj, PhD., Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Fakulta telesnej výchovy a športu, Katedra športových hier, 2019, 118 s. Vedecká monografia prezentuje výsledky výskumu, ktorého cie om bola diagnostika úrovne basketbalových zru ností žiakov 5. a 6. ro níka vybraných základných škôl v Banskej Bystrici v školskom roku 2018/2019 a tvorba hodnotiacich škál (výkonových ukazovate ov) vybraných basketbalových zru ností. Výskumu sa zú astnilo spolu 370 žiakov (153 chlapcov a 217 diev at), z toho bolo 210 žiakov 5. ro níka (n = 90 chlapcov, decimálny vek = 11,77 roka, telesná výška = 149,45 ± 6,76 cm, telesná hmotnos = 41,34 ±10,31 kg, BMI = 18,46 ± 3,93 / n = 120 diev at, decimálny vek = 11,59 roka, telesná výška = 149,15 ± 6,76 cm telesná hmotnos = 40,25 ±10,31, BMI = 18,09 ± 4,24) a 160 žiakov 6. ro níka (n =63 chlapcov, decimálny vek = 12,74 roka, telesná výška = 153,71 ± 6,76 cm, telesná hmotnos = 46,15 ±10,31 kg, BMI = 19,53 ± 4,51/ n = 97 diev at, decimálny vek = 12,48 roka, telesná výška = 153,92 ± 6,76 cm, telesná hmotnos = 42,75 ±10,31 kg, BMI = 18,04 ± 6,37 ). Úrove basketbalových zru ností, vo vybraných herných innostiach jednotlivca - dribling, prihrávka, stre ba, sme zis ovali prostredníctvom štyroch testov: beh na 6 x 5 m s vedením lopty, 5

7 dribling so zmenami smeru, prihrávky na presnos, stre ba z miesta. V rámci diagnostiky basketbalových zru ností sme realizovali aj jeden test zameraný na špecifickú pohybovú schopnos hrá ska rýchlos, išlo o bežeckú rýchlos so zmenou smeru (test beh na 6 x 5 m), prostredníctvom ktorého sme chceli overi vplyv zru nosti v práci s loptou na hrá sku rýchlos a získa tak objektívne ukazovatele o úrovni vybranej basketbalovej zru nosti - vedenie lopty (dribling). Výsledky diagnostiky vybraných basketbalových zru ností sme vyhodnotili pomocou opisných charakteristík deskriptívnej štatistiky, ktoré sme doplnili základnými logickými metódami. Následne sme vytvorili 5-stup ovú hodnotiacu škálu, kde sme ku každej hodnote priradili bodovú hodnotu a vytvorili sme jednoduchý spôsob vyhodnocovania úrovne vybraných basketbalových zru ností prostredníctvom bodového hodnotenia, o bolo aj sekundárnym cie om a jednou z úloh nášho výskumu. Na základe dosiahnutých výsledkov sme zistili, že naši respondenti pri hodnotení úrovne vybraných basketbalových zru ností, v 5-stup ovej hodnotiacej bodovej škále, dosiahli vo všetkých testoch basketbalových zru ností priemernú úrove, rovnako u chlapcov aj diev at, v oboch ro níkoch vybraných základných škôl. Výsledky nášho výskumu, vzh adom na po etnos výskumného súboru, považujeme za orienta né, napriek tomu veríme, že informácie uvedené v tejto vedeckej monografii budú prínosom pre zvýšenie kvality vyu ovania športovej hry basketbal, ako aj pre budúcich trénerov basketbalu a samotnú športovú prax. K ú ové slová: basketbal, basketbalové zru nosti, diagnostika, stredný školský vek, telesná a športová výchova 6

8 PREFACE Over the last decades, our way of life has changed significantly: our physical activity is decreasing, while the mental load is increasing. Today, we can see a generation of children grow who perform little physical activity, which is determined by the modern life in a world full of technology. Children can be mostly seen performing sedentary activities related to communication on the Internet, videogames, or playing with tablets and laptops. Lots of children already suffer from obesity at that age, which makes physical activities hard for them and therefore they do not like them. Physical education and sports as an academic subjects at all levels of education represents an integrated didactic process focused on systematic achievement of educational, upbringing, and health-related goals, thus contributing to pupils harmonic development and universal preparation for their future lives. The process of physical education is based on positive influencing of pupils physical and mental health as well as their physical, functional and movement development. It also enhances the formation of pupils mental, intellectual, and other personality attributes through interaction with the teacher. Physical education and sports as an academic subject provides basic information on biological, physical, and social foundations of the healthy lifestyle. However, the most important mission of this subject is to help children develop a positive relationship towards physical activity by allowing them to learn movement abilities, skills, and habits that represent an integral part of healthy lifestyle. The ultimate goal is for the children to opt for healthy lifestyle not only at school, but also in their adulthood. 7

9 In physical education and sports at schools, the Sports Games thematic unit has gained the most popularity. It also includes basketball as a dynamic sports game. Despite the fact that basketball is fairly demanding in terms of games skills, movement structure, but also physical and mental preparation, it belongs among the most popular sports games in the world. It has also been permeating the afternoon sports clubs at all types of schools and all levels of education it is a fun free-time activity and helps pupils relax. However, this sports game has always been difficult in terms of techniques and its rules have been changing over time. Basketball requires an advanced ability to control one s body parts both simultaneously and one by one, which is connected to muscle coordination, subtle differentiation, and generally requires an advanced level of movement abilities and specific skills. Physical education and sports at schools strives to help children achieve this level. Based on this and also the fact that analysing basketball skills level is an important indicator of players technical level, the research team decided to perform a research focused on diagnosing the level of basketball skills among 5th and 6th graders at selected primary schools in Banská Bystrica in the 2018/2019 school year. Subsequently, a simple way of assessing the level of selected basketball skills was designed using point scores (assessment scales performance indicators) for the teachers to verify whether the contents are taught effectively and requirements specified in the respective standards are being met. This monograph has been created within the KEGA. 026UMB-4/2017 project entitled Tvorba u ebných textov a u ebných pomôcok pre u ite ov telesnej a športovej výchovy na základných a stredných školách so zameraním na športovú hru 8

10 basketbal/creation of educational texts and tools for teachers of physical education and sports at primary and high schools focused on basketball as a sports game. The research team would like to thank the reviewers, doc. PaedDr. Miroslav Nemec, PhD. and PaedDr. Pavol Hori ka, PhD for their constructive remarks, the managements and 5th & 6th grade teachers at the selected schools in Banská Bystrica, and last but not least, the pupils who participated in our research. The research team believes that this monograph will help improve teaching basketball as a sports game and provide useful tools for basketball coaches and the sport in practice. 9

11 CONTENS INTRODUCTION 16 1 THEORETICAL ANALYSIS Basketball lessons in the ISCED 2 State Education Programme Basketball thematic unit Teaching skills and competences in basketball within ISCED The characteristics of basketball based on 32 the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of player performance The characteristics of basketball according to the analysis of the object of basketball Monitoring of basketball playing skills Physical and motor development of pupils 41 2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND TASKS Research objective Research tasks 48 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Characteristics of the research group Organization and research conditions Methods of data acquisition Somatometry method Basketball skills testing Methods of processing and evaluating the research data Score of basketball skills 60 10

12 3.4.2 Statistical methods of evaluating content and performance standards 61 4 RESEARCH RESULTS Physical development of boys and girls of the 5th and 6th grades at primary schools in Banská Bystrica The level of basketball skills of girls in the 5th and 6th grades at primary schools in Banská Bystrica The level of basketball skills of boys in the 5th and 6th grades at primary schools in Banská Bystrica The comparison of basketball skills of boys and girls of the 5th and 6th grades at primary schools in Banská Bystrica Test scores of the basketball skills of girls and boys of the 5th and 6th grades at primary school grades Conditionality of changes in physical development and basketball skills of the 5th and 6th grades pupils at primary schools in Banská Bystrica 87 DISCUSSION 94 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE 100 LIST OF BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES 103 APPENDIXS

13 1 THEORETICAL ANALYSIS Basketball skills of pupils are one of the factors which form the basis for mastering the basic playing combinations and systems. This is also reflected in the performance standard of the thematic unit Sport games, which is a part of the section called Sport activities of the movement regime in ISCED-2 ( This mentions the basic tasks for pupils, such as: to name and describe the defensive and attacking players functions; to fill in a simple observational sheet about a player and team performance; to show and implement the technique of basic playing activities of an individual in a match and to apply the playing combinations and systems in a game. Considering the content standard, it involves mastering skills such as: dribbling technique, set shot, close range shot and medium range shot, defending the player without and with a basketball and playing on two baskets according to the playing rules. This monograph represents one of the main outcomes of the KEGA 026UMB-4/2017 research tasks entitled "Creation of Teaching Materials and Tools for Teachers of Physical Education and Sports at Primary Schools with the Focus on Basketball as a Sports Game". One of the goals was to design a way to diagnose selected basketball skills level among pupils at the second stage of primary schools. Another goal was to verify whether the tasks specified in the ISCED 2 performance stadard are being fulfilled. 19

14 Title: The Level of Basketball Skills among Pupils in Banská Bystrica Primary Schools Authors: PhDr. Andrea Izáková, PhD. PaedDr. Gustáv Argaj, PhD. doc. PaedDr. Robert Rozim, PhD. Reviewers: doc. PaedDr. Miroslav Nemec, PhD. PaedDr. Pavol Hori ka, PhD Translation: LCT o. z. Proofreading: Mark Wyllie Number of copies: 100 pcs Number of pages: 118 p. Edition: First Format: A5 Year: 2019 Publisher: GAUDEAMUS University of Hradec Králové Published by Gaudeamus, University of Hradec Králové as its 1696 publication. ISBN